1.8 L naturally aspirated version is rumored to appear in the Cadillac ELR.
1.8 L naturally aspirated version is rumored to appear in the Cadillac ELR.
It is actually a somewhat complex issue ..... including the difference's and the different effects of D4 vs D4S.
Among the many as an example, D4-S ( S = 'Superior' ) uses a dual fan ( slit ) DI injector.
It is just one approach of many available.
( And one should really understand how it works and why it is positively needed - which also helps explain why no else wants to do it that way ie it is expensive and gettin' real 'old'. The PFI system is massively under utilized in a sense - considering the cost. )
Driven mostly by the previous developments and preferences with Toyota installed DI systems going back to the JDM in the late ish '90s.
Oh and uh Japan Inc. desire to attempt to get around a bunch of injector - and other patents.
These earlier approaches and installations are now fully obsolete and never could work outside of a very small set of installations and markets.
Specifically, 'two' or really three preferences together - that then require - as a band aid, the addition of PFI.
So.... a Toyota / Yen Subsidy bubble baby........ with a very limited stated primary purpose....... and some decent secondary and tertiary side effects - in certain markets - basically with ****ty fuel - like here.
In their own ( semi slippery ) words - from their own SAE paper published in 2006 -
- hang on got to select the best material in a short length
Copyright © 2006 SAE International
A new V-6 3.5-liter gasoline engine (2GR-FSE) uses a
newly developed stoichiometric direct injection system
with two fuel injectors in each cylinder (D-4S: Direct
injection 4-stroke gasoline engine system Superior
version). One is a direct injection injector generating a
dual-fan-shaped spray with wide dispersion, while the
other is a port injector. With this system, the engine
achieves a power level among the highest for production
engines of this displacement and a fuel economy rating
of 24mpg on the EPA cycle. Emissions are among the
lowest level for this class of sedans, meeting Ultra Low
Emission Vehicle standards (ULEV-II).
The dual-fan-shaped spray was adopted to improve fullload
performance. The new spray promotes a
homogeneous mixture without any devices to generate
intense in-cylinder air-motion at lower engine speeds.
For this reason the engine has improved volumetric
efficiency compared to engines having these charge
motion devices, resulting in improved full-load
performance throughout the engine speed range.
Together with Dual VVT-i (Variable intake and exhaust
Valve Timing intelligence), the engine achieves specific
power near the top of all naturally aspirated production
gasoline engines in the world: 66kW/L, 228kW at
Fuel economy is improved compared to a conventional
DISI engine with both injectors optimized to improve
combustion. As for improvement of the exhaust
emissions, simultaneous injection by the two injectors is
effective in reduction of HC emissions during cold start.
The requirements of reduced emissions and enhanced
driving comfort are critical for modern automobiles.
Several automobile manufacturers have introduced
direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines to the
worldwide markets. Initially, DISI engines utilized
stratified operations to improve fuel consumption. As the
emission regulations have become more stringent, DISI
engines have changed to utilize stoichiometric
operations to meet emission regulations.
The reason is
that stoichiometric DISI engines have several
advantages over port fuel injection (PFI) engines. These
advantages of DISI engines are higher full-load
performance, reduced emissions such as THC, NOx and
CO emissions and better fuel economy i.e. CO2
Concerning full-load performance, it was reported that
the fuel latent heat can be utilized to reduce the intake
charge temperature. DISI engines exhibit improved fullload
performance by injected fuel evaporation that uses
thermal energy inside the cylinder; this results in DISI
engines demonstrating higher volumetric efficiency (ηv)
and lower knocking tendencies [4-8]. Several studies
investigating the benefit of volumetric efficiency that a
DISI engine gains through fuel latent heat have been
conducted. They found that volumetric efficiency of a
DISI engine is higher by approximately 2-3% compared
to an equivalent port fuel injection (PFI) engine [4-8].
They report that through charge cooling by fuel
evaporation a DISI engine can obtain a higher
compression ratio by approximately 1-2 points .
Higher volumetric efficiency and lower knocking
tendencies bring a DISI engine higher torque and power
output. It was reported that torque can increase across a
wide speed range by approximately 5-10% .
As for emissions performance, a DISI engine can utilize
stratified charge combustion and an intense turbulence
generated by the spray injected at the end of the
compression stroke during the catalyst warm-up phase;
this enables stable combustion at highly retarded ignition
timing, which significantly improves the warm-up speed
of the catalyst. It was observed that the increase of the
catalyst temperature for a DISI engine compared to an
equivalent PFI engine is approximately 500 °C , that
results in a decrease in THC emissions.
For a stoichiometric DISI engine, suppressing knock
improves fuel economy. The DISI engine achieves better
fuel consumption than an equivalent PFI engine due to
reduced knocking tendency that enables higher
compression ratios of approximately a 1-2 point increase
A DISI engine, however, has a disadvantage in forming
a homogeneous air-fuel mixture in the cylinder because
of a lack of time to form a homogeneous mixture from
the time fuel is injected until ignition occurs.
mixture stratification in the cylinder. The combustion
efficiency and the combustion variability of a DISI engine,
consequently, are worse at higher loads and at lower
engine speeds due to weak in-cylinder air-motion. In
order to improve these combustion deteriorations, a DISI
engine requires some devices to generate in-cylinder
charge-motion to promote a homogeneous mixture
formation. These devices include a tumble intake-port, a
helical intake-port, a swirl control valve (SCV) and so on.
These devices, however, decrease the intake-port flow
efficiency compared to that of a PFI engine. The intakeport
design requires higher volumetric efficiency and
also more intense air-motion, but these are conflicting
requirements. Figure 1 shows the trade-off between flow
coefficient and tumble intensity. It was reported too in
other studies that the creation of stronger in-cylinder
flows typically reduces volumetric efficiency . DISI
engines, consequently, have a disadvantage with
respect to full-load performance, because they require
intense in-cylinder air-motion to form a homogeneous
mixture resulting in reduced intake-port efficiency and
torque and power loses at higher engine speeds.
The main purpose of this study is to improve full-load
performance with a high flow efficiency intake-port and
adopting a new dual-fan-shaped spray.
This spray helps
to promote a homogeneous mixture at lower engine
speeds without any devices to generate intense airmotion
to improve combustion stability. With respect to
fuel consumption and torque fluctuations at part loads, it
will be described that the use of a PFI injector together
with a DISI injector produces a more homogeneous
mixture improving combustion efficiency, reducing fuel
consumption and torque fluctuations compared to a PFI
Additionally, simultaneous injection is effective in
reduction of HC emissions during cold starts before the
start catalyst is activated.
Lastly the specifications for the
2GR-FSE engine adopting this new direct injection
system with dual-fan-shaped spray and installation of
port fuel injection will be reported.
2. THE MAIN ISSUES OF COMBUSTION OF THE
HIGH FLOW EFFICIENCY ENGINE -
4.4 FINAL INJECTION STRATEGY ADOPTED FOR
The final strategy of D-4S system for introduction to
production now will be discussed.
is utilized to optimize combustion at lower engine
speeds. The mixture formation using 100% DI at higher
engine speeds is sufficiently homogeneous and
combustion efficiency is at a level comparable to
simultaneous injection due to the piston speeds.
reason simultaneous injection is not required at higher
Another consideration when
simultaneous injection is utilized at higher engine
speeds, the injector-tip temperature of the DI injector
becomes too high promoting injector deposits and
degrading the durability of the injector.
According to the
research , a DI injector has issues when the injectortip
temperature reaches approximately 150°C. For this
reason utilization of simultaneous injection is limited.
Figure 16 shows the DI ratio of the utilization area for
simultaneous injection. -
- and finally
This paper described improvement of full-load
performance for the D-4S system that has high flow
efficiency intake-ports, dual-fan-shaped sprays for the DI
injectors and simultaneous injection using PFI injectors
and DI injectors.
CFD analyses confirmed the dual-fanshaped
sprays satisfy the requirements for full-load
performance. The specification of the new 2GR-FSE V-6
3.5-liter engine and the vehicle performance with this
engine were described.
1. With the aim of improvement of full-load performance,
a high efficiency intake-port is adopted. But combustion
efficiency at lower engine speeds deteriorates due to
less homogeneity of the mixture formation in the cylinder.
The newly developed dual-fan-shaped spray DI injector
promotes a homogeneous mixture without any devices
to generate intense air-motion to improve full-load
2. It was revealed that adoption of the new spray and
higher efficiency intake-port cannot sufficiently suppress
torque fluctuations at part loads due to a heterogeneous
mixture. To improve the mixture formation, a PFI
injection is installed. Simultaneous injection of two
injectors can improve combustion over a PFI only
system due to a more homogeneous mixture.
3. Simultaneous injection is effective in reduction of HC
emissions during catalyst warm-up under cold conditions.
Furthernore utilizing PFI injection during engine cranking
can reduce HC emissions: these can bring this engine a
potential for SULEV standards.
4. The 2GR-FSE engine has been developed with D-4S
system, and this engine contributes significantly to
improved vehicle performance. With this engine, the
LEXUS IS350 delivers class leading full-load
performance, and excellent fuel economy while meeting
low emission standards.
Authors would like to acknowledge to the members of
Yamaha Motor Co., LTD., Nippon Soken Inc., Denso
Corporation and all other people who have helped us in
developing this new DISI engine.
1. Sadakane, S., Sugiyama, M., Kishi, H., Harada, J.
and Sonoda, Y., “Development of a New V-6 High
Performance Stoihiometric Gasoline Direct Injection
Engine”, SAE Paper2005-01-1152, 2005.
2. Kanda, M., Baika T., Kato, S. Iwamuro, M., Koike, M.,
and Saito, A., “Application of a New Combustion
Concept to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine”, SAE
3. Abe, S., Sasaki, K., Baika, T., Nakashima, T., and
Fujishiro, O., “Combustion Analysis on Piston Cavity
Shape of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine”, SAE
4. Yang, J. and Anderson, R.W., “Fuel Injection
Strategies to Increase Full-Load Torque Output of a
Direct-Injection SI Engine”, SAE Paper980495, 1998.
5. Takagi, Y., Ihoh, T., Muranaka, S., Iiyama, A., Iwakiri,
Y., Urushihara, T., and Naitoh, K., “Simultaneous
Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output
Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct
Injection SI Engines”, SAE Paper980149, 1998.
6. Anderson, R. W., Yang, J., Brehob, D. D., Vallance,
J. K. and Whiteaker, R. M., “Understanding the
Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition
(DISI) Combustion Systems: An Analytical and
Experimental Investigation”, SAE Paper 962018,
7. Lippert, A. M., El Tahry, S. H., Heubler, M. S.,
Parrish, S. E., Inoue, H. and Noyori, T.,
“Development and Optimization of a Small-
Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine
– Full-Load Operation”, SAE Paper 2004-01-0034,
8. Baretzky, U., Andor, T., Diel, H. and Ullrich, W., “The
Direct Injection System of the 2001 Audi Turbo V8
Le Mans Engines”, SAE Paper 2002-01-3357, 2002.
9. Kino****a, M., Saito, A., Matsu****a, S., Shibata, H.,
and Niwa, Y., “A Method for Suppressing Formation
of Deposits on Fuel Injector for Direct Injection
Gasoline Engine”, SAE Paper 1999-01-3656, 1999.
10. Landenfeld, T., Kufferath, A. and Gerhardt, J.,
“Gasoline Direct Injection – SULEV Emission
Concept”, SAE Paper 2004-01-0041, 2004.
11. Morita, K., Sonoda, Y., Kawase, T., and Suzuki, H.,
“Emission Reduction of a Stoichiometric Gasoline
Direct Injection Engine”, SAE Paper 2005-01-3687,
Those two main functional preferences ( three if you count some aspects of emissions - and four if you count the tech they wanted to 'ignore' ) are GDI - with pretty much the usual list of plus and minuses coupled with a serious aversion to charge motion devices AND 'designs' to introduce swirl and tumble etc ie 'mixing' which is needed for gasoline DI under certain loads, rpms and conditions. These preferences in their own words are about optimizing intake ports for full load conditions - with their particular approach to DIn and there by avoiding a torque loss at hi rpm and load that they but not others, feel is unavoidable via..... basically intake port flow restriction.
Sigh......so much to correct here.........
Lets do just one.
Oh really ?
Pray tell, please direct us to the installations that inject during all four cycles.
Low cost, low pressure PFI that split FI delivery - either on a full time or part time basis divide it into two - not four.
But in a somewhat useful half assed fashion - he is trying.
I'm optimistic -
Some day - he even may pass the course.
Have you looked at the full graph - and considered how it might be installed - and the related transmissions set up and operation ?
If I got what I need by 4700 rpm along with a useable but lesser extension above that - for the gear splits involved etc - pray tell why do I need to go a whole lot higher ??????
Maybe some time in a ole two valve Dodge / Cummins is in order ?
Maybe - but much more often in the real world including many kinds of racing - nope.
What you suggest is for most part only ( barely ) desirable in some very specialized installations outside of lite automotive.
It would represent a waste and a risk also btw -
Using applicable realworld automotive requirements for a specific installation a bunch of other considerations come into play.
One of the many that is very typical is to have a torque max or torque band + an rpm margin above - so that under load when a shift occurs, you end up where you want on rpm afterward.
This has it's own flavor on anything with a turbo - don't want to fall off or below a certain boost level - given the load and driver command no matter what they are.
Last edited by AMERICA 123; 07-01-2012 at 12:53 PM.
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1.6T would make a nice offering to kick off new Cruze body styles like a hatch and coupe. Also would be hot offering for the next generation of Equinox. I would drather it trickle down to the Sonic. Leave the 1.4T for as the top engine in the Sonic but make it more readily available perhaps even the base engine for both the Sonic and Cruze. The 1.8 leaves an awful lot to be desired. If GM doesn't plan some future DI and/or turbo charging then I think they need to ditch it.
Start of powertrain renewal with high torque 1.6 liter turbocharged gasoline engine
Opel has announced that it is fundamentally renewing its engine range and the first phase of this plan is starting now. Three completely new engine families are in the pipeline. The gasoline turbocharged four-cylinder with a displacement of 1598 cc, central direct injection and Start/Stop technology is now the first such engine to be unveiled when it makes its debut in Moscow.
The new SIDI (spark ignition direct injection) ECOTEC engine provides an extraordinarily high maximum torque of up to 300 Nm. The production start is scheduled for the end of the year; Russia is expected to be one its biggest markets.
World Premiere in Moscow: Opel’s new gasoline turbocharged four-cylinder engine marks the first phase in the brand’s new engine program. The engine has a displacement of 1598 cc, central direct injection and Start/Stop technology. The new SIDI (spark ignition direct injection) ECOTEC engine provides an extraordinarily high maximum torque of up to 300 Nm.
Last edited by DmitryKo; 09-06-2012 at 02:03 PM.
Thank you for posting that , and this engine I would hope makes it to the US.
I still wonder how did they manage to squeeze 300 N·m out of this new 1.6 L block. This is 25-30% higher than the Ecoboost 1.6, and even the newest 1598 cc BMW N13 engine for the 2012 BMW 118i is only rated at 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) @4800 and 250 N·m (184 lb·ft) @1500-4500 - using twin-scroll turbocharger and variable valve lift (Valvetronic), as well as DI, D-VVT and S&S, and the fuel economy numbers are excellent as well.
The 1.6 L (1,591 cc) Gamma T-GDi engine for the Hyundai Veloster Turbo comes pretty close with 204 PS @ 6000 rpm and 265 N·m @ 1750-4500 rpm though, using twin-scroll turbo as well as DI and D-VVT; also the Peugeot 308 GTI version of the N13, which also comes with twin-scroll turbo, DI and Valvetronic, has 200 PS @ 5500 rpm and 275 N·m @ 1700 rpm. With no Start&Stop their projected fuel economy numbers are less impressive though.
BTW good articles on twin-scroll turbo:
Last edited by DmitryKo; 08-30-2012 at 02:04 PM.
Indeed the new Opel turbo engines have impressive tourque numbers. The new 2.0T/280hp/400Nm(295lb ft)/200Nm per liter, and now the 1.6T/200hp/300Nm (221lb ft)/187.5Nm per liter. Even compared to Opels own turbo diesel 2.0CDTI/165hp/350Nm (258lb ft)/175Nm per liter.
I've been to MIAS-2012 today and visited the Opel stand, where the cutaway model of the "1.6 SIDI ECOTEC" was on display.
I will be there again next Thursday to make some photos; for now, here is what I can tell you:
- Slightly lower specs were given - power of 170 PS (125.0 kW; 167.7 hp) @ 4250 rpm, torque of 280 N·m (210 lbf·ft) @ 1650-4250 rpm (200 PS reserved for Corsa OPC)
- Compression rate is 10.5:1 - quite high for a turbocharged engine (8.8:1 in Family 1 Turbo)
- Chain-driven DOHC valvetrain with dual continuous variable cam phasing (DCVCP); no variable valve lift.
- Grey cast-iron block, aluminum alloy cylinder head.
- Single-scroll turbocharger; the large radiator at the front is the intercooler
- Bore, stroke and displacement same as 1.6 L Family 1, but otherwise entirely new block/head
- Stratified charge (lean-burn) capable: an oval-shaped cavity (an ovoid) is on the piston's surface
- The central injector is mounted vertically between two intake valves; the spark plug is slightly angled towards the injector.
- Euro 5 listed, however Euro 6 requirements are the same for DI petrol engines
Fuel consumption and release dates were not provided yet.
I have updated my 1.6 turbo engines comparison with these new figures.
1.6 SIDI Ecotec.JPG
Last edited by DmitryKo; 10-17-2012 at 01:06 AM.
Bring it here with an automatic transmission and AWD. Dammit! lol
The Opel Astra and VW Scirocco need to be in North America.
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The sad story of the Eurozone:
Last edited by DmitryKo; 09-06-2012 at 02:09 PM.
Any sign of the dct gearbox that is coming?
I've been to the Moscow Salon and made some photos of the cut-out model on the Opel Stand - however the lighting and the settings did not allow me to make detailed photos, so I rather suggest you to look at the PR photos in a post above.
Instead, I made a photo of the combustion chamber cutout, which shows some interesting features - for example, an inclined ignition spark, the central direct injector almost touching the intake valves, the ovoid cavity on piston's surface.
MGE cylinder view.JPG
I'm not sure about variable valve lift, as the cam/roller assembly was cut out to provide a view of the cylinder head, but there is no mention of that in the specs.
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